This book reveals the mechanisms underlying the convergence of car fuel economy regulations in Europe, Japan and the US by drawing upon a constructivist theory of International Relations and law that focuses on business competition and environmental regulations. It offers new understanding of the topic of cars and an issue of climate change, discussing the emerging phenomenon of convergence of fuel economy regulations; addressing the role of business actors in pushing for climate change action; proposing the new model of agency with and beyond states; and providing insightful case studies from Europe, Japan and the US.
The opening chapter reviews the automobile industry and global climate change, providing a background for the discussion to follow. Chapter 2, Business Actors and Global Environmental Governance, grounds the discussion in the field of environmental governance. The third chapter is a case study examining the construction and timing of the European Union's climate policies for automobile CO2 emissions, discussing the underlying factors and the actors influencing the policies. The following chapter argues that Japan adopted its stringent fuel economy regulations primarily because of industry competitiveness, motivated by stringent environmental regulations in export markets and encouraged by a tradition of 'co-regulation' and 'corporatism' to enhance the regulations. Chapter 5 asks why the US, the first country to introduce fuel economy regulations, spent two decades in regulatory stagnation, and discusses how recent US fuel economy regulations came to converge with Japanese and European standards.
Chapter 6 compares, contrasts and analyzes fuel economy regulations among the three case studies and identifies policy implications for the future climate governance for 2015 and beyond. The final chapter explores applicability of the 'agency with and beyond the state' model to other sectors and to climate governance as a whole.
An “Engineering Research Series” title. This excellent and long awaited book is based upon extensive research carried out by the Institute of Tribology at the University of Leeds in the UK and the Ford Motor Company Ltd. It is concerned with both the theoretical and experimental study of the tribological performance of an automobile valve train, having an offset taper cam and a domed follower, incorporated with an hydraulic lash adjuster, with particular reference to the ZETA engine valve train. <p> A sophisticated theoretical model has been developed that predicts the tribological performance of the valve train, and also provides a useful tool for the consideration of the tribological design of valve trains. Additionally the model can estimate the instantaneous and average rotational frequency of the follower, and the performance of the hydraulic lash adjuster. <p> In order to validate the theoretical model, the experimental measurements have been correlated with the theoretical predictions that simulate the test conditions of the valve train. The agreement between the measurements and the predictions show that the model is very reliable. This gives readers great confidence in using the model when dealing with novel and alternative designs of the valve train.<br> <p> COMPLETE CONTENTS: <ul> <li> <div>Part One – Theoretical Formulation. Kinematics and dynamics of the cam and follower</div> <li> <div>Hydraulic lash adjuster</div> <li> <div>The maximum hertzian stresses</div> <li> <div>Asperity interactions</div> <li> <div>The oil film thickness</div> <li> <div>Friction and power loss of the valve train</div> <li> <div>The rotation of the follower</div> <li> <div>The overall solution procedure and input/output data</div> <li> <div>An example of the tribological analysis of a valve train.</div> <li> <div>Part Two – Experimental Study. Test apparatus and the instrumentation</div> <li> <div>Calibration of the instrumentation and commissioning tests</div> <li> <div>Test procedure</div> <li> <div>Data processing</div> <li> <div>Experimental results and discussions</div> <li> <div>Part Three – Correlation of theory and experiments. Experimental evidences</div> <li> <div>Theoretical predictions</div> <li> <div>Comparison of results and discussions</div> <li> <div>Overall conclusions.</div> </ul>
This book presents an analysis of some of the changes that have transformed the automobile industry in the last thirty years illustrating some of the most significant consequences of globalization. Focusing on the response of Europe's policy makers, it analyzes government-industry relations at both national and transnational levels, demonstrating how national policy instruments have been eroded by regional, political and economic integration. There has been a significant and irreversible shift in the locus of decision-making power from nation states to the regional level in the automobile sector.